Wednesday, February 26, 2014

Soap in the Midst of Diamonds

When Potter Palmer and other millionaires began building their magnificent mansions on Lakeshore drive they had a major problem with a nearby soap factory. Thomas Dougall had purchased his property on Cedar Street when it was a wilderness. Now it was valuable, but a major problem.

The millionaires appointed a committee to visit Mr. Dougall and seek to buy him out and “get rid of this soap factory because it was an objectionable feature in the locality of their palaces.”  During the visit Mr. Dougall said “...Gentlemen, I didn’t ask you to come up here and build your residences near my soap factory, and being here when you came it will have to remain...” And remain it did. Soap in the middle and diamonds all around.

Thomas Dougall was born in West Calder, near Edinburgh, Scotland, on June 16, 1811. As a teenager he worked in a local soap factory but when he reached “his majority” he emigrated to Canada and remained in MontrĂ©al for a short time before moving to New York City. In 1848 he came to Chicago when it was scarcely more than a village. He bought his property on Cedar Street (lots 39 to 45) where it grew in value over the years. Mr. Dougall was involved in the manufacture of soap from 1837 to 1890 when he retired.

Miss Elizabeth Cameron, from Forres, Scotland, married Thomas Dougall in October 1837, near Salem, New York. She died in Chicago on January 21, 1878 leaving 11 children: Naomi, the wife of David Wiley of Chicago; Mallion, Jane, Elizabeth, Margaret, Alan, John, William, James, Robert, and Mabel. A son named David died in Chicago on June 30, 1884. 

Three different times his business was destroyed by fire. Before the Great Fire of 1871, he occupied a three-story frame building. After the fire he erected another frame structure 66 x 75' in size. “His losses have been very heavy, but he has always been able to pay every dollar of his indebtedness.”

Mr. Dougall was an active member of the Illinois Saint Andrew Society and the Caledonian Society. He was a member of the Fourth Presbyterian Church and the funeral was conducted by the Rev. William Robson Notman. “A delegation from the Saint Andrew’s Society was present to honor the memory of their departed member.”  He was survived by four daughters and three sons.

Thomas Dougall was the great-great grandfather of Robert James Black, president of the Illinois Saint Andrew Society in 1998-1999. Mr. Black died of a massive heart attack at a Home Committee meeting in the new Georgeson wing before the facility admitted its first resident. His picture is in the museum. He was justly proud of his heritage and told the story of Thomas Dougall whenever he could. Bob was a patent attorney with offices in Park Ridge. I had the privilege of conducting his funeral service. Some members of the Black family are buried in section 12 at Rosehill cemetery.

Thomas Dougall, his wife and 22 member of his family are buried in Section 101 at Rosehill. This includes all of his children and 7 grandchildren. The last burial was in 1963.

(Much of the above information was taken from his obituary as printed in The Soap Gazette and Perfumer, May, 1903 and The History of Chicago, vol. 3.)

Wayne Rethford, President Emeritus
Illinois Saint Andrew Society

Upcoming Events:

Saturday, March 1 - Bill Currie, a retired journalist, has traveled for decades throughout Scotland, writing about its culture and its people. In the 1980s, he produced and managed the Highland Games, helping to revive the events in Chicago and Milwaukee. Before retiring in 2003, he lived on the Isle of Skye, where he was deputy editor at the West Island Free Press. Last year, after 45 years of playing the Great Highland Bagpipes, he laid them down to concentrate on woodworking. Why? "Because there are no 9-fingered pipers." He will bring family artifacts and tell you about the Currie Seed Co. The museum opens at 9:00 a.m. and the presentation begins at 10:00.

Saturday, April 5 - Our special speaker is James Cornelius, Curator of the Lincoln Collection in the Abraham Lincoln Presidential library. Please note the time change! THE MEETING WILL START AT 2 P.M. (museum will open at 1 p.m.)

Personal Note: My thanks to everyone who has send cards, emails or called our family after the death of Mary Ellen on January 13th. Over 200 cards and letters have been received and many of you sent memorials to the Lombard Nazarene Church in Lombard, IL. Many of you came to the memorial service in spite of snow and icy roads. Gus Noble, our President, and the Board of Governors for the Illinois Saint Andrew Society, have been most kind and have offered much personal support. Thanks for supplying the piper and the beautiful floral arrangement for Mary’s memorial service.

Friday, January 31, 2014

History Club Meeting on February 1 Cancelled!

Based on present weather forecasts, we have decided to CANCEL the History Club meeting scheduled for tomorrow, February 1.  Our Speaker, James Cornelius, will be rescheduled.  Call me if you have questions. 

Wayne Rethford, President Emeritus
Illinois Saint Andrew Society
Scottish American History Club

Thursday, January 16, 2014

Mary Ellen Rethford, 1928-2014

Mary Ellen McDonough was born in San Antonio, Texas,on July 7, 1928. A few days after her birth, the family moved to Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Her father was a Pentecostal preacher and became the pastor of a growing church called Capital Hill Assembly. Mary graduated from Capitol Hill High School in 1945 where she participated in drama and was the state champion badminton player.

In 1946, she married Wayne Rethford whom she had known since the age of twelve. Two children resulted from the union: Elaine Moore and Suzanne D’Anza. There are 3 grandchildren and 3 great grandchildren.

Mary was energetic, smart and full of boundless energy. She had an excellent singing voice and often sang in church, at funerals and weddings. Her interest in church music was endless and she had committed hundreds of song to memory.

As we have reviewed her life, her interests and accomplishments, we found them interesting and amazing. Here is a partial list:

While living in Nashville, TN. She became a skilled maker of women’s hats and an accomplished seamstress. She was also skilled in pattern making and could see a dress, draw the necessary patterns and then sew the dress. A trade school offered a certificate in Interior Design and she became quite proficient at designing home interiors.

After many years of study and testing, she became a Master Graphoanalyst and was very adept in interpreting personality traits through an individual’s handwriting. She often gave talks at local colleges and to other interested groups on handwriting analysis and on several occasions was used by local police departments to analyze profiles. She once served on a selection committee for those seeking to winter at the South Pole for several months. She used handwriting as a basis for her selections. Her analysis was compared to other psychological testing before the final individuals were selected.

She became a Licensed Nursing Home Administrator in Illinois but never served in that capacity. Accomplished at picture framing, she was the owner of a frame shop in Glen Ellyn known as Dorothy’s.

Graduating from a school in Iowa, she became licensed in electrolysis and in 1976 opened “Electrolysis by Mary Ellen.” It first located in Glen Ellyn and later in Wheaton. The business, now greatly expanded, is owned and operated by her two daughters.

She was quite proficient in needlework and the making of Christmas ornaments. She was an excellent cook, but it was not something she especially enjoyed. If she had interest, there was little she could not learn to do - from refinishing furniture, rewiring lamps, installing ceramic tile or looking for antiques at garage sales. She always carried a small magnet. Before the days of the Internet, there was always a book with instructions at the book store to teach her anything she wanted to learn.
Mary Ellen had many friends and was greatly admired by members of her church, her business clients and the Scottish community of Chicagoland. In 2010, the Board of Governors of the Illinois Saint Andrew Society honored her “cultural and charitable work” by naming her the Clanswoman of the Year.   

Mary Ellen Rethford died on January 13, 2014 at her home in Lombard, IL. Her life will be honored on the evening of January 26 at the Lombard Church of the Nazarene, 536 North Rt. 53 (Columbine Ave). For those of you without a G.P.S. system, the church is one-half mile south of North Ave on the west side of the street. The family will be receiving guests beginning at 5:30 p.m. followed by a service of thanksgiving and music. A lone piper will close the service with Amazing Grace.” All are welcome.

This memorial service is being arranged by the Lombard Church and they will be pleased to receive memorials in Mary’s name in lieu of flowers. Send your memorial to the Lombard Church of the Nazarene, 536 North Route 53, Lombard, IL. 60148.

If you need more information you can call my home, 630-629-4516 or the church office 630-627-9444.

Wayne Rethford, husband and President Emeritus
Illinois Saint Andrew Society

Upcoming Events:
The Scottish American History Club will meet on February 1, 2014. The special speaker is James Cornelius, Curator of the Lincoln Collection in the Abraham Lincoln Presidential library. Please note the time change!

THE MEETING WILL START AT 2 P.M. (museum will open at 1 p.m.)

Monday, January 6, 2014

Chicago’s Scot - H. Philip Maxwell

Beginning in 1930 and ending in 1966, the city of Chicago held an annual music festival in Soldier Field. The attendance was always between 70 and 80 thousand but when loud speakers were added outside the stadium the attendance reached one hundred thousand or more.

The event officially known as the Chicagoland Music Festival was sponsored by the Chicago Tribune Charities, Inc., who also sponsored the Amateur Boxing Association and the R.O.T.C. program in local schools.

On the day of the Festival a luncheon was held in the Grand Ballroom of the Conrad Hilton Hotel on Michigan Avenue where the star entertainers performed. Over the years the list of stars was quite amazing. Here are just a few of the names: The Lenon Sisters, Frankie Avalon, Louis (Satchmo) Armstrong, Alan King, Liberace, The W-G-N Barn Dance crew, Eydie Gorme, Hildegarde, Charlie Weaver and the Murk Family Singers from Wheaton. ( If you don’t recognize some of those it’s because of your age.)

One name many of you will recognize is that of Edd Byrnes. Ten thousand teenagers greeted his plane when it landed at Midway Airport and Channel 7 televised his arrival. A capacity crowd of 1200 also greeted him at the Conrad Hilton.

In 1938 one of the features was the match lighting ceremony. It became a regular feature. The Diamond National Corp. of New York City supplied 150,000 "strike anywhere" matches for the event. Not sure of the significance of the ceremony but if any of our readers know they can leave a comment.

Chicago’s African American community often had the greatest emotional impact. A chorus of 1,000 sang the old Negro Spirituals. They practiced at what is now the Metropolitan Apostolic Community Church at King Drive and 41st Street. Traffic stopped and people listened. A Tribune reporter named James Bennett visited the church and reported that every seat was filled at the practice. "I’ll tell what is the real story: It was singing so rapturous, so pulsating, and so moving that it made you want to cry and made you feel you ought to pray."

This group of 1,000 once combined their voices with 4,000 others to sing the Hallelujah Chorus. That year, 2,000 lawyers from America and Great Britain, who were attending a convention of the American Bar Association, came as group to hear the great voices.

The Tribune employee responsible for all the planning was H. Philip Maxwell. He had joined the Tribune in 1929 and headed the Golden Gloves boxing tournament and the ROTC awards program. Mr. Maxwell was born in Greencastle, Indiana, 1901. His father was a Methodist gospel singer. On New Year’s Day our family did some checking on and the Maxwell family for several generations were all born in Indiana and New York. We did this search because Mayor Richard H. Daley often referred to him as "Chicago’s Scot."

Mr. Maxwell’s retirement party in 1967 was held in the Grand ballroom of the Conrad Hilton where 850 had lunch and remembered all the great festivals. The Tribune wrote: "A touch of Scottish heather filtered into the Grand ballroom as Chicago paid tribute to Phillip Maxwell..." The Tribune continued: "It was a time for a special visit from Mayor Daley, for laughter while humorous, heart- warming gifts were presented, for perhaps a few tears as memories of past Festivals were relived, and for heartfelt applause for Chicago’s Scot, Harry Philip Maxwell."

I don’t know if Philip Maxwell was a member of the Saint Andrew Society but I think he might have been. His brother, W.D. Maxwell was the Editor of the Chicago Tribune and a Distinguished Citizen at the banquet in 1965. More about him at a later time.

At the time of his death Mr. Maxwell was a patient in the LaGrange Community Hospital. He lived in Naperville with his wife who survived him. Other family members were a son, Donald; a daughter, Mrs. Barbara Downs; and a brother, W.D. Maxwell. He is buried in Vincennes, Indiana.

These festivals are great reminders of our past and every year was its own story. We have certainly changed as a people. Sometimes, I think it might be nice to turn back the clock.

Wayne Rethford

Upcoming Events:

The first History Club meeting in the new year will be on January 11, 2014. Same place - same time (10 a.m.) - different date. The speaker will be Tina Beaird and her subject - "The Scottish Diaspora - Migration Chains to Illinois." Tina is the Reference Librarian at the Plainfield Library. We met Tina on our History Tour last summer. She is smart, full of energy and knows her subject. It will be a good start for 2014.

February 1, 2014. New Time - 2 p.m. Our speaker will be James M. Cornelius who is the Curator of the Lincoln Collection in the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum. He is a native of Minnesota and a graduate of the University of Illinois. Please note the time change. The museum will open at 1 p.m.

Friday, January 3, 2014

Milwaukee, A Scotch Town

“Contrary to popular belief, Milwaukee was originally a Scotch-Irish town, not a German settlement. A great part in building it up from a small town to the twelfth city of the United States was taken by Scotchmen, who achieved prominence in finance, commerce and industry, and upheld the finest traditions of Scottish culture.” So says the Milwaukee Journal on January 24, 1934.

The article was written because the St. Andrew’s Society was celebrating its seventy-fifth anniversary and the 250th anniversary of the birth of Robert Burns. At their first dinner on January 25, 1859, Alexander Mitchell was in the chair, the vice-president, Judge Arthur MacArthur was the toastmaster. Robert Menzies was the first secretary and the poet laureate was Robert Shiells. So many Scots lived in Milwaukee that the “Scotch public picnic was for years the largest and merriest gathering in Milwaukee.” In the winter there was curling promoted by the St. Andrew’s Society.

As we have previously mentioned the first president of the Milwaukee Society was Alexander Mitchell, who according this article, was the outstanding Scotchman who played the leading role in the development of Milwaukee and the northwest. John Johnston was a nephew of Mr. Mitchell and a graduate of the University of Aberdeen. He came to Milwaukee in 1856 and spent his entire life working at the Mitchell bank. Three times the St. Andrew’s Society elected him president and he was also the president of the Grand National Curling Clubs of America.

Another prominent Scot was Arthur MacArthur who came to Milwaukee in 1849 and two years later was the city attorney. He later became an associate judge of the supreme court of the District of Columbia and was later chancellor of the National University in Washington. His son Arthur served in the Civil War and was given “the congressional medal of honor for bravery at Missionary Ridge.” In the Spanish-American war he served with honor in the Philippines. He fell dead while addressing his comrades of the 24th Wisconsin volunteers at a reunion in Milwaukee. His son was General Douglas MacArthur of World War II. He also received the Medal of Honor.

I have never seen the Robert Burns statue in Milwaukee but the sculptor is the same as ours standing in Garfield Park since 1906. They are identical.  “In 1909 the Milwaukee Society unveiled the statue of Robert Burns which now stands in Franklin Square.” It was a gift from James A. Bryden, a founder and past president of the Society. The organization also contributed money to the Scottish memorial in the Princess Street Gardens which says: “A tribute from men of Scottish blood and sympathies in America to Scotland.” I wonder if that memorial still exists?

I find it interesting that Douglas MacArthur and Billie Mitchell grew up in the same town and were nearly the same age. Later in life they would be in the same courtroom - one a defendant, the other a member of the jury. More on that later. I can’t think of a major American city that does not have a Scottish history. I hope someone in Milwaukee will take interest and begin to gather these great stories.

Wayne Rethford, President Emeritus
Illinois St. Andrew’s Society

Upcoming Events:

The first History Club meeting in the new year will be on January 11, 2014. Same place - same time - different date. The speaker will be Tina Beaird and her subject - “The Scottish Diaspora - Migration Chains to Illinois.” Tina is the Reference Librarian at the Plainfield Library. We met Tina on our History Tour last summer. She is smart, full of energy and knows her subject. It will be a good start for 2014.

Wednesday, December 18, 2013

Alexander Mitchell of Milwaukee

Alexander Mitchell came from Scotland in 1839 at the age of 21. His granddaughter said he was a “poor country boy,” son of a village doctor in Aberdeenshire. Milwaukee at the time was a village of 1500 people and the entire state had a population of only 30,000. A lot of Scots chose Milwaukee over Chicago. Perhaps because Chicago was a swamp and Milwaukee was not?

The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress says he was born in Ellon, Aberdenshire, Scotland. Attended the parish schools and completed a commercial course, studied law, and became a banking-house clerk. He served two terms in the Congress and declined to be a candidate for governor. He died while on a visit to New York City on April 19, 1887.

His granddaughter, Ruth Mitchell, wrote a book published in 1953 entitled “My brother Bill” where she wrote the following: “He quickly found a job and his Scotch good sense, energy and integrity so impressed Daniel Wells that he offered him assistance. The effort was to create an insurance company which was really a bank and it would be first in the territory. He named it The Marine Fire and Insurance Company. They underwrote the project with $200. The bank printed their own money and some bank money was good and some was not. Mitchell’s money was gladly accepted by everyone and everywhere. During the panics of 1857 and 1873, and in the great crash of ‘93, the Mitchell bank was the only one in the middle West which paid 100 cents on every dollar.” She doesn’t mention the banker George Smith who also came from Aberdeen.

According to the Wisconsin Historical Society, Mitchell came to the U.S. to become secretary of the Wisconsin Marine and Fire Insurance Company, the company being founded by “Chicago capitalist and fellow Scotsman, George Smith.” I’m not sure which story is correct but I tend to believe the Historical Society.

There is a family tradition that the couple lived above the bank which was surrounded by a picket fence. Mrs. Mitchell, who had “flaming red Scottish hair,” would tie her cow to the fence during the milking process. One day an Indian suddenly came out of the forest and stole the cow despite “her vociferous militant protests.” Milwaukee at the time was surrounded for miles and miles by a dense forest. The cow was never found.

So many of you have described your Scottish ancestors to me and the description of Mr. Mitchell reminds me of what has often been said. One man described Mr Mitchell by saying: He was a “stoutish man with a broad round face, a double chin fringed with a gray beard that extended in a semicircle from ear to ear. He walked slowly, his hands folded behind his back. It seemed to me there was something proud and defiant in his manner; and that he did not look as happy as I believed a millionaire should look. Indeed, he seems to have possessed not a spark of humor, life had been too fierce a struggle.”

He is best remembered as a railroad builder and executive. In 1865 he became president of the Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad Company. It only had 270 miles of track and was virtually bankrupt when he took over. Within a year it was operating in the black and at the time of his death in 1877 the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul R.R. had over 5000 miles of track in seven states. Of the 100 shares, Mitchell owned 99.  He became one of the wealthiest men in the state of Wisconsin. In his political views he was definitely conservative but would often move between the republicans and democrats. He was a strong supporter of Abraham Lincoln but after the Civil War leaned towards the democrats. He was elected to Congress on the democratic ticket in 1870 and was re-elected in 1872. He was not a candidate for re-election in 1874 and declined the Democratic nomination for governor. He was not only wealthy but a man of power.

The Wisconsin Marine and Fire Insurance Company was organized by George Smith and Alexander Mitchell was the secretary. It was operated with “the sound principles of the Scotch system.” At one time the bank had issued a million dollars in certificates bearing only their two names. During the several “panics” that followed, other banks failed, but their bank redeemed every certificate with gold.

In 1841, Mr. Mitchell married Martha Reed. Her father was Seth Reed a pioneer of Milwaukee. Her brother was Harrison Reed, Governor of Florida. They had one son, John Lendum Mitchell who was 44 at the time of his father’s death and was to succeed his father as president of the bank. There was also an adopted daughter, Mrs. Dr. Mackie, of Milwaukee and a sister and brother in Aberdeenshire. His estate was believed to be worth over $20,000,000. In the Panic of 1873, when there was a run on the banks, John L. used $1.3 million of his own money to satisfy depositors. Mitchell money was always as good as gold.

In 1859, Alexander Mitchell became the first President of the Milwaukee St. Andrew’s Society. He was a avid curler and helped establish the Milwaukee Curling Club in the 1840s. Shortly before his death, he was elected the “patron” of the Grand National Curling Club.

Alexander Mitchell died at the Hoffman House in New York City from the flu. He had been losing weight for about two months but ill from the flu only a week. In early December he traveled with his former pastor, Rev. Dr. Kean, to Florida. He and Mrs. Mitchell had built a large home on San Marco (Jacksonville) near the head of the St. John’s River. Later, they traveled in his private railroad car to New York City where he was joined by his son, John L. Mitchell. He died a short time later and is buried in Forest Home Cemetery in Milwaukee. (There is a picture on the Internet.)

Their magnificent home in Milwaukee is now the Wisconsin Club. I don’t know if they allow tours of the club but if they do it would make a good History Club trip sometime. I know there is much more to this story and there is more information on the Internet. Our readers who live in Wisconsin are welcome to join in the discussions with more information.

Alexander Mitchell is the grandfather of General William “Billy” Mitchell.

Wayne Rethford, President Emeritus
Illinois Saint Andrew Society

Note: The first History Club meeting in the new year will be on January 11, 2014. Same place - same time - different date. The speaker will be Tina Beaird and her subject - “The Scottish Diaspora - Migration Chains to Illinois.” Tina is the Reference Librarian at the Plainfield Library. We met Tina on our History Tour last summer. She is smart, full of energy and knows her subject. It will be a good start for 2014.

Personal comment: I need to tell the almost 1,000 people who receive the Blog that our family is having some difficult days. My wife who has cancer is now at home with Hospice care. We will keep her home as long as possible but we are unsure of how much time is left. If the Blog is not regular for the next three months or so, we hope you will understand. Thoughts and prayers are appreciated.

Wednesday, December 4, 2013

A Failed Utopia

As the River Clyde leaves the southern uplands, it turns East for a time below Tinto Hill and then makes a u-turn heading toward Lanark under the Hyndford bridge. The river then throws itself into a steep-sided gorge for about a mile and a half. Using the power of the Clyde an “English- man helped a Glaswegian lay the foundation for an industrial bonanza which awaited the development of Lanarkshire’s most beautiful and spectacular location.”

Seeing the huge potential of the rushing water, Robert Arkwright, together with Glasgow banker David Dale, purchased the land along the Clyde. Here, they built the largest cotton mills in Britain and began the “greatest single industrial adventure Scotland had ever witnessed.”

Within two years Arkwright had departed and David Dale was left alone to finish the project. He erected the cotton mills, built dye-works and workshops. In addition, he built a school, shops and accommodations, so that a real community could develop. Wages were low, but the benefits for the community were greater than those normally given. Workers could buy food, clothing and other articles at cost from the company store. Children were encouraged to attend local schools and free medical services were provided. Housing was also available at a modest cost and garden space was near.

Many of the “shattered Highlanders, victims of the Clearances” made their way to New Lanark seeking employment. But, the work was best suited for the young. Dale needed “quick, supple and nimble fingers” to do his work. “Many orphans found desperation converted to hope and future security solely as a consequence of their inclusion in this 18th century Clydesdale revolution.” They worked 13 hours a day at the mill, with a half hour off for breakfast and three quarters of an hour for the noon meal. In 1810 the work time was reduced to 12 hours.  David Dale was treated as a hero and was very popular with his employees.

Unlike many factories across Britain this was not a sweat-shop. Workers were paid fairly for their labor. David Dale was a kind man. “He strove not only to manufacture a quality end product but also to bond his 1200 strong community and create a kindred spirit among them. Undoubtedly, he succeeded in doing just that.”

Gradually Robert Owen changed his ideas about man in society. He sought to secure shorter working hours and better working conditions through legislation in Parliament. These efforts proved largely fruitless and over time he became convinced that society itself was in need of drastic change. He concluded that marriage, the church, and the institution of private property were roadblocks to the establishment of a new society. He believed that man’s character was determined by him through his environment, not by personal endeavors alone.

Robert Owen met many of America’s leaders as he began the process of building his new society. At New York, Philadelphia and Washington he had discussions with important leaders in business, culture and politics. He met with Presidents James Monroe, John Quincy Adams, Thomas Jefferson and Gen. Andrew Jackson. He spoke twice to the House of Representatives in Washington D.C.

Soon, Robert Owen would buy an entire village and call it New Harmony, Indiana. It cost $125,000, had approximately 180 structures and included 30,000 acres of land. It is important to note that Owen invested his own money in the purchase of New Harmony, Indiana.

The community failed in less than 3 years and Robert Owen returned to Scotland on May 1,1827.

In the mid-20th century, the cotton industry was in steep decline as artificial textiles became popular. In 1967, no buyer could be found for the derelict buildings and so New Lanark died. Conservationists began to work at saving and restoring the buildings. “Now it is once again a thriving community, where heritage and private accommodations happily cohabit and to which thousands travel each year to enjoy and wonder at the reinstatement of one of Scotland’s greatest ever industrial and social miracles.”

They still celebrate their Scottish heritage each year on August 2. There is much more to the story and I hope this article will interests some of you to do more research. It would make a great trip for the History Club but would require an overnight stay.

 (Information for this article were taken liberally from two books: Scottish Enterprises, Millennium Images of Scotland by Donald Ford and New Harmony, Indiana: Robert Owen’s Seedbed for Utopia by Donald F. Carmony and Josephine H. Elliott)

Wayne Rethford, President Emeritus
Illinois Saint Andrew Society